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Lynching is an extrajudicial punishment by an informal group. It is most often used to characterize informal public executions by a mob, often by hanging, in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate a minority group. (Wikipedia)

For the past two of three years I have been calling awareness to the plight of lynching. Through an online event called, International Lynching Awareness Day Lynching which has until recent the tragic death of the young teenager 17-year-old Lennon Lee Lacy of Bladenboro (Bladen County) two counties south east of Goldsboro (Wayne County) here in NC, has not been in the national consciousness despite cases in the early 2000’s which have actually received national attention. Even the Lennon Lacy case, which was initially ruled a suicide, was reported s an “isolated case.” It had many wondering, now in light of protest of the rash of police killings of mainly unarmed African-American men, that is lynching in America “back?” The bitter truth is that lynching never stopped!

My rude awakening happened on Feb. 24, 2009, when I received a call at exactly 9:00am from my first ex-wife telling me that our oldest son, Jibril was dead. They lived in a predominately white neighborhood of Dundalk. Where we purchased a house years before we divorced. Jibril was an enterprising young man of 21 who had an extremely bright future ahead of him. I cried loud and hard for at least 20 minutes or more. My beloved son. My heir was dead. A short while later, however, my second oldest son, Sulaiman, called with more shocking news. He said, “Abi (My father in Arabic), Jibril was hung.” “Hung?” I replied in even more shock. Turned out that my daughter (their sister), Kabira found Jibril hanging from a beam at the basement door. He shared a bedroom in the basement with Sulaiman who was away visiting relatives in Alabama.   The so-called authorities did not investigated his death, instead they automatically declared it was a suicide though Jibril was just approved for a loan to purchase his first home less that 24 hours ago!

I had just recently moved to NC. Jibril and I were close.   I lost not only a son but a friend and companion. When I moved here he and I worked nights and spent many nights in conversation. I still have his last email to me 2 days before his death. After I returned to NC after I buried my son, I did research. I typed in “murder to look like suicide” and what I found

There have been lynchings going on practically every year leading up to my son’s death and in almost all the cases, as in my son’s, were ruled “suicides!”

Unfortunately, in 2010,the year after Jibril’s death, a star H.S. student athlete, Charles Conley, 19,  was found lynched in Dover, DE.  There was another lynching in a park in Dover in 2012.  The victim, Johnny Lorenzo Clark, a local barber was found hung with his own belt at Dover’s Silver Lake Park on May 12th. In October there was an attempted lynching in the same park but  this time the victim Henry Fordham got away.  He was able to fully describe the devils who tried to lynch him.  Even getting their first names (John and Mike).  The fact that they were driving a white pickup truck.  He was able to express how they set him up, then kidnapped him took him to the park then assaulted him while attempting to hang him.  Unfortunately it was Mr. Fordham who was arrested instead of the assailants.  The Dover police did not want to believe him despite of the obvious injuries Mr. Fordham had suffered.  Dover and Delaware state police, in an attempt to cover up the incident, continue to harass him and Dr. Issa Smith, a professor at Delaware State University (DSU), a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), who got involved with the investigations of Mr. Fordham’s case and the others.  Please go to Youtube to see the interview with Henry Fordham.  It is entitled “2012 Delaware Lynchings: The Henry Fordham Story.”  There are about 6 or 7 videos in the series.  Also google “Delaware  lynchinegs” or either of the cases just mentioned.

Two more lynchings were reported of two young black men in Cincinnati, OH in 2012.

In 2013, Kory Ingham, 18, was found hung in Athens, TX.  Kody who has a white mother was dating a white girl. (in Lennon Lacy’s case he was dating a white woman twice his age).  Kody’s mother refused to view it as a lynching.

I discovered that there was a White supremacist convention in Maryland just two weeks before my son’s death.  There was a Klan rally in Bladensboro just before Lennon Lacy’s death.

In 1981, a young black man, Michael Donald, 19, was found hung from a tree in a park in Mobile, AL.  That case turned out quite different.  Not only was it ruled a homicide and arrest of two terrorist klansmen, Henry Frances Hays, 25, and James “Tiger” Knowles, 17, and another accomplice Frank Cox, 27. The mother of the victim was able to sue the local chapter of the Klan and was able to take possession all of their property.

Though lynching victims are mostly young Black men, a census worker whose death got national attention in what appeared to be a lynching by someone hostile to the Federal government. It was later ruled a suicide though he had the words, “Fed” scratched on his chest.  The victim was a white male.  And recently in perhaps the saddest case of all is of a 6-year old girl, Kendrea Johnson who was found hung by her own jump rope in Brooklyn. On December 27, 2014.  Reports stated the little girl made suicidal statements since being trapped in the foster care system but according to investigators the knots in the rope were too sophisticated for a of child her age to tie.

Some of the known victims of lynchings (as far as I know) 1985-2015:

Andre Jones, 18, Mississippi, 1993 (In a jail for a speeding ticket. Was to start engineering school the next day) Feraris “Ray” Golden, 32, Florida, 2003 (father of 3, found hanged on an umbrella tree in his grandmother’s backyard with hands tied behind his back)

Robert “Jose” McNair, 46, Mississippi, 2003 (Business owner, cousin of former NFL star quarterback, the late Steve McNair.)

Winston Deroyal Carter, 29, Tuskegee, Alabama, 2004 (found at 6:15am)

Bernard Burden, 21, Georgia, 2004

Raynard Johnson, 17, Mississippi, 2005

Jibril Mustafa, 21, Maryland, 2009 (Just got approved for a loan to buy a house the day before)

Charles Conley, 19, Delaware, 2010 (Well-liked star student athlete)

Frederick Jermaine Carter, 26, Mississippi, 2010 (a white pickup was used by property owners where the tree that he was found hanged on.  It may just be pure coincidence but the two assailants in the Henry Fordham case, John and Mike drove a white pickup truck)

Johnny Lorenzo Clark, Delaware, 2012 (A local barber)

Two lynchings of unidentified young black men, Cincinnati, OH, 2012

Kody Ingham, Texas, 2013 (His mother is white and does not want to believe it is a lynching)

Lennon Lee Lacy, Bladensboro, NC (He was found hanged with shoes two sizes too small).

There is a book that has been recently published about lynching in this country from 1870-1950.

We are also coming upon the 60 years since the brutal lynching of 14 year old Emmit Till. Thus lynching especially since the recent cases of Lennon Lee Lacy and Otis Byrd will be on the minds of most Americans.

The media has made it seemed that lynching had ended and that it was a thing of the past.  As public spectacle it may have ended but lynching continues as a clandestine and secretive crime.  Instead of pictures of smiling white racist terror mobs, todays terrorist are hidden and act in pairs.

To live with the reality that your son or loved one has been murdered is cruel enough.  But have to been lynched by unknown criminals, who the so-called authorities have let get away with, is devastating. Please do your research online as there is much information of the topic of lynching within the last 30 years and more recent.

For more information about these deaths visit the blog and Facebook page, “Justice 4 Jibril” http// or


Dr. Edward W. Blyden 



Dr. Blyden is considered the “Father of Pan-Africanism” Born in the Dutch (now U.S.) Virgin Islands in 1832, he set out for Liberia, as a missionary, after being rejected by a few US colleges because he was Black.  As a missionary he was told that the Africans were savages and heathens in need of the white man’s religion—Christianity.  However when he got there he realized the Africans were civilized with customs that long pre-dated the arrival of the Europeans.  Of the most noted customs he found was Islam.  He was thoroughly impressed with the positive effect Al-Islam had of the African as compared to Christianity’s debilitating effects.  He was to spend the rest of his life in West Africa as a statesman for Liberia and at the end of his life in charge of Islamic Education in Sierra Leone, where he was known as “Abdul Karim.”  The Blyden Historical Society was founded in his honor among African-centered scholars in New York. His books include:

Christianity, Islam  and The Negro Race(1887)

African Life and Customs (1908)  West  Africa Before The European: And Other Addresses In England in 1901 &1903 (1905).


Dr. Martin Delany (1812-1883)


Martin Delany is considered the “Grandfather of Black Nationalism.”  Born in Charles Town, Virginia (now, Charlestown, West Virginia), a free man.  His grandparents on both sides were born in African of royal lineage. His paternal grandfather was a  Gola chief in what is now Liberia and his maternal Grandfather was a Mandinka prince.

In 1822, his mother moved him and his siblings to Pennsylvania in order for them to learn to read and write as it was illegal in the state of Virginia to educate any Black person, free or slave.  He was one of the first three Blacks admitted into the Harvard Medical School.  Dr. Delany was also a writer who help Frederick Douglas in his abolitionist newspaper, The North Star.

He joined the military during the Civil War.  His rank as Major was the highest rank among African-Americans at that time.  After the war he was stationed at the Freeman’s Bureau in SC, where he strongly advocated for the former slaves to be given land.

While living in Pittsburgh in 1853,  he wrote a book; The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, Politically Considered (1852).   In his book he realized that Black people had no future in white controlled US society and that it was necessary to migrate elsewhere, to the Caribbean or to South America.  He died in Wilberforce, Ohio at age 72.

Joel Augustus (JA) Rogers


 Born in Jamaica, West Indies and died in New York, JA Rogers was perhaps the most prolific writer and author of African– American History.  He was never a college professor or a college graduate.  He worked in many fields as a young adult before settling on journalism.  His groundbreaking book: Superman To Man (1917)  was to start a series of books that set the stage for the enlightenment of new generations of scholars.  He came to prominence during the Harlem Renaissance (1919-1935), a period where we African-Americans began to link with our African heritage and developed Black conscious thought and expression. Some of his other books include:  100 Facts About The Negro (1934); World’s Greatest Men Of Color, vols. 1& 2 (1940); Sex & Race, vols. 1-3 (1947); Africa’s Gifts To America.(1959); FIVE NEGRO PRESIDENTS (1965).


Dr. John Hendrik Clarke (1915-1998)

Born in Union Springs, Alabama to Sharecroppers, Dr. Clarke left the south, at age 18, for Harlem, N.Y. in the event called, “The Great Migration” in 1933 during the Harlem Renaissance period.  Though he never officially attended High School, he attended New York University and Columbia University.  He was a member of the Blyden Historical Society among other Black Studies Associations. He came prominent during the Black Power Movement of the latter 1960”s, as he was a leading advocate establishing Black Studies in the universities and colleges.  He was a founding chairman of Black & Hispanic studies programs at Hunter College and Cornell University. His books include:

New Approach to African History (1967)

The Boy Who Painted Jesus Black (1975); Editor, Malcolm X: Man and His Times (1991), an anthology of the activist’s writings

Author and editor, Who Betrayed the African World Revolution?: And Other Speeches (1993)

African People in World History (1993);

Christopher Columbus and the Afrikan Holocaust: Slavery and the Rise of European Capitalism (reprinted 2011)

Dr. Yosef Ben-Johannon (1918-)


Affectionately known as Dr. Ben, the 96 year old professor of African studies was born to an Ethiopian father and a Puerto Rican mother.  He educated in Puerto Rico, Spain and Cuba where he got his doctorate before

arriving in the U.S. in the 1940’s.  He claims to have been appointed the chairman of UNESO African Studies Committee in 1945– 1970.  Between 1950-1987, he taught at Malcolm King College, City College of NY (CCNY), and Cornell University.  Despite of his controversial teachings, he is highly respected in the Pan-African and Kemetic communities.  He currently lives in Harlem.  I visited his office and small bookstore in the 1980’s.  He authored 49 books some of which are:

African Origins of Major Western Religions (1970);  Black Man of the Nile and His Family (1972);  Africa: Mother of Western Civilization. (1971) ; We the Black Jews (1983); Abu Simbel to Ghizeh: A Guide Book and Manual; Cultural Genocide in the Black and African Studies Curriculum. New York (1987);  New Dimensions in African History (1991); The Myth of Exodus and Genesis and the Exclusion of Their African Origins (2002)



Dr. Ivan Van Sertima (1935-2009)

Born in Guyana, Dr. van Sertima studied in his home country then at the University of London.  He came to the U.S. for graduate studies at Rutgers University in New Jersey, where he taught as an Associate professor.  Dr. van Sertima’s groundbreaking book,  They Came Before Columbus (1976),  revitalized the subject first presented in the 1920 book by Dr. Leo Weiner,  African Discovery of America.  Dr. van Sertima would go on to publish the Journal of African Civilizations, while authoring and/or editing or co-editing several books.  Dr. van Sertima retired in 2006 as a professor at Rutgers University.  He was elected to the Rutgers Alumni Hall of Fame in 2004. He died in New Jersey.  His works include:

As author:

Caribbean Writers: Critical Essays, London & Port of Spain(1968)

They Came Before Columbus, New York(1976)

As editor:

The Journal of African Civilizations (1979–2005); Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern (1983); African Presence in Early Europe (1985); Great African Thinkers, Cheikh Anta Diop (1986); Great Black Leaders: Ancient and Modern (1988);  Black Women in Antiquity (1988);  Cheikh Anta Diop (1988); The Journal of African Civilizations (1988);The Golden Age of the Moor (1992);   Egypt Revisited (1993); Early America Revisited (1998)

As co-editor

The Journal of African Civilizations,(1985); with Runoko Rashidi, African Presence in Early Asia

Dr. Carter G. Woodson founded what was then known as Negro History Week in 1926 to acknowledge the contributions of people of African descent. Why was this important? Today there are some who want to argue that it is not important and that there should be no such thing as Black History Month. Then there is the other extreme where it is felt that every ethnic or special interest group must have a month to acknowledge their particular interest.

The reason for African –American or Black History Month is because of the false doctrine of White supremacy which is the reason for racism. Racist historians wiped out the achievements of people of African descent. They distorted history by first, splitting humanity into different “racial” caste, putting “Whites” on the top of the caste system then promoting the notion that civilization was an invention of “whites” and that “Blacks” and other people of color where uncivilized.

This totally opposite of the truth which records that not only did mankind originate in Africa but practiced an highly complex culture and had advanced technology which was spread through out the world.

The idea that was promoted by “race inventors” Carol Linnaeus and Johann Blumenbach that each of the separate so-called races of humanity originated each separately in a continent is baseless as history reveals that dark skinned people are indigenous to every inch of the globe.

As we continue to evolve as a global family, true understanding is vital for the survival of the humanity.

Dr. Woodson’s most famous book, THE MISEDUCATION OF THE NEGRO, highlighted the need for African-Americans to develop independent educational institutions that are designed for our needs. The work of Dr. Woodson is carry on by an organization he co-founded, Association for The Study of African-American Life and History (ASLAH). (the name “Negro” was used originally before being replaced by “African-American” in 1973).


These martyrs gave their lives for the struggle for Human rights for African-Americans. We must remember that not only Blacks but Whites as well died for us to get to this level of the struggle. Unfortunately, as the struggle for human rights continues and intensifies, this list as in the list of victims will grow. The late Bob Marley has said in his song , Natural Mystic, “Many more will have to suffer, many more will have to die..”
James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael “Mickey” Schwernerwho were recently posthumously awarded by Pres. Barack Obama, the Presidential Medal of Freedom’ shot at close range on the night of June 21–22, 1964 by members of the Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klanthe Neshoba County Sheriff’s Office and the Philadelphia Police Department located in Philadelphia, Mississippi, The three had been working on the “Freedom Summer” campaign, attempting to register African Americans to vote.

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Fred Hampton, chairman of the Chicago chapter of the Black Panther Party. He was a very charismatic community leader. He was gunned down by FBI & Chicago Police in a raid on his home, while in still in bed. He was 21 years old.
John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was a white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. During the 1856 conflict in Kansas, Brown commanded forces at the Battle of Black Jack and the Battle of Osawatomie. Brown’s followers also killed five slavery supporters at Pottawatomie. In 1859, Brown led an unsuccessful raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry that ended with his capture. Brown’s trial resulted in his conviction and a sentence of death by hanging.
Medgar Evers (July 2, 1925 – June 12, 1963) was an African-American civil rights activist from Mississippi involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi. After returning from overseas military service in World War II and completing his secondary education, he became active in the civil rights movement. He became a field secretary for the NAACP.Evers was assassinated by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizens’ Council. As a veteran, Evers was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.

The myth is that Africans were brought to America as slaves to toil in the cotton fields and remained deprived of any knowledge. It is widely believed that Blacks became civilized with the benefit of European education. However, if one reads African history correctly then one would realize that Africa was a land where its indigenous people had very advance technologies. Then it should be of no surprise that many of the inventions, from the end of slavery to the present, were patented by African-Americans.

First you must understand that certain African peoples were targeted due to their expertise in particular trades and technology. For example the Mande were taken from the Sierra Leone region of West Africa to South Carolina because of their rice cultivation expertise. That region’s climate like South Carolina was ideal for rice cultivation. Indeed, it is not hard to imagine that people who knew of building structural engineering were specifically targeted also. The cause of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was the crusades against the Moors who were pursued into Africa and captured and enslaved, as ordered by the Pope. The Moors, who controlled the Iberian Peninsula (Spain & Portugal), had brought to the Europeans advanced technology, science, mathematics, medicine and hygienic practices which are in use today in our everyday life. The reality is the enslavement of Africans is because Europeans had knowledge of their technology, thus using the enslaved to produce a civilization of technological advancement.

There are various highly advance ancient structures on the African continent. These ancient structures have been found in different parts of the world and have attributed to these same African people. There are not only pyramids in Egypt but in other places in other parts of Africa (Nubia modern day Sudan), Europe (Bosnia), Asia (Japan) and the Americas (Mexico & the US). The Nazis during WWII, did massive archeological excavations in and around the Egyptian pyramids. They uncovered much information on ancient advanced technology that was incorporated in their weapons program. This was the premise highlighted in movies such the first “Raiders Of The Lost Ark.” After the war Nazi scientist were used by both the US and the Soviet Union to produce their missile and space programs.

The discovery of aerial dynamic model planes found near the pyramids suggest that the Ancient Egyptians understood flight. There is a 3,000 year-old temple where there are carved in stone, pictures that resemble modern air, surface and underwater crafts.

There is evidence also that Africans had advanced knowledge of the heavens. Not only are the pyramids aligned with the Sirius star system, there are ancient observatories which predate the pyramids that are located in the Nubia dessert that was the subject of the book, “Black Genesis: The Prehistoric Origins of Ancient Egypt” by Robert Bauval and David Brophy.   Other ancient observatories such as Stonehenge in the UK are part of the same structural design and now believed to have been the work of Ancient Black populations that predated the modern European.

The Dogon people of Mali are known for their complex cosmology and have been identified as descendants of the Ancient Egyptians. Benjamin Banneker a contemporary of George Washington and the “Founding Fathers” has been reputed to be a descendant of these African people. Banneker the inventor of the first American clock, corrected much of the scientific knowledge the Europeans held with the knowledge that was passed down through his father and grandfather. He is also credited with designing Washington, DC. Blacks during slavery built plantation owners” mansions and also the buildings such as the Whitehouse and Capitol Building in Washington, DC. They did not learn this in trade school. They had knowledge that was inherited from their Ancestors.

Slave were not allowed to hold patents as their inventions were credited to their masters. But once slavery ended there was an explosion of inventions patented by African-Americans.

Many of inventions produced by African-Americans in the latter 19th century were related to the railroad industry at the time was in its infancy.   Elijah Mc Coy invented automatic coupling for rail cars, the oil lubricator (which makes oil lubricating engines possible today), among other inventions. He is the initial focus of the phrase, “the real McCoy.” Granville T. Woods also invented many of the devices such as the Electrical railroads systems still in used today in subway and other rail systems. He is also the inventor of the air brake.

Many of the inventions we enjoy today in our households have been invented by African-Americans. A shorten list includes: The folding chair, the elevator, the ironing board, the lawn mower, the air conditioner, the cell phone, the fountain pen, the hot comb, the refrigerator, the mailbox, pencil sharpener, the clothes dryer, and there are many more.

Inventions such as the telephone and the light bulb attributed to white men respectively, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Edison are linked by one African-American man named, Louis Howard Latimer, who was an employee of both men. He drew up the blueprint for the telephone and invented the filament to make the electric light bulb work. Jan Matzeliger invented the shoe making machine which created the modern shoe industry by allowing the mass production of shoes.   Garret Morgan made many of our lives safe by inventing the gas mask and the traffic signal.

The first African-American female millionaire was an inventor named Madam C.J. Walker. She made her millions as a pioneer in developing hair care products for Black women. One of her inventions is the straightening comb.   She also established training schools that produced other African-American women entrepreneurs.

Today there is still a rich legacy of African-American inventors with patents for advancing and cutting edge technologies in space exploration, weapon systems, computer electronics, medicine and other fields. Dr. Patricia Bath invented the laser eye surgery device that has helped millions with cataract problems to see clearly again. It is evident that much technological know how that is embedded in the DNA of the African–American from our Ancestors from the African continent who influenced technology in other parts of the world. In other words what we were in Africa we are in America. There are literally countless of technologically advanced structures in Africa such as the Great Walls of Zimbabwe, the Amhara (Ethiopia) churches that are carved out of rock, ancient mines in South Africa (also through out the continent), and ancient underground cities found under the Egyptian dessert. Ancient texts contain reports about the building of ancient canals and dams, delicate surgeries, movie projection, mechanical robotics, metallurgy, and even aerial and space travel. These have ben recently verified in the finding and re interpretation of ancient artifacts. Once believed to be mythology, thanks to the internet and programs such as the History Channel series ”Ancient Aliens,” the stories from ancient civilizations, especially on the African continent, are being re-examined as critical evidence to past truths long buried.

Unfortunately our perception of Africa has been shaped by a media that has always portrayed Africans as backwards uncivilized or primitive while showing only rural people while ignoring the fact that these people are descendent from people who have built great ancient cities. and empires. Even modern African major cities rival New York, Paris, London and other major cities in the rest of the so-called industrial nations.

In one of his many documentary videos, the late Basil Davidson, an Englishman and African Historian, stood in what appeared to be a modern apartment that had running water and an inside toilet in east Africa. It turned out however, according to Davidson, was in fact, if I’m not mistaken 2,000 years old!

Books to read on the many contributions that Africa has given to modern society are AFRICA’S GIFTS TO AMERICA by J.A. Rodgers and BLACKS IN SCIENCE edited by the late Dr. Ivan Van Sertima

Therefore, the boosting of advancement in technology produced in the US as “American ingenuity“ is actually a legacy of Africa!

An original article by

 Halim Mustafa Al-Kanemi,

NEW AFRICA RISES  Chief Editor and founder/ director of NEW AFRICAN HERITAGE SOCIETY

In the light of recently reported killings of Black men and attacks on black women by white law enforcement officers, race has again become a hot issue in the American conscience. The deaths of Michael Brown in Ferguson, MO; Eric Garner in Staten Island, NY; the deaths of black men in California, the death of a John Crawford in a Walmart in Dayton, Ohio holding a toy gun that was on sale at the store, the videos of police assaults on one woman in California and two women in Brooklyn, NY one being dragged from her apartment nude by white male officers and another who was pregnant, being accosted by a white male officer on her own porch while grilling; have galvanized the public to realize that racist behavior by law enforcement is a threat to national security.

I am also a victim of police brutality in a Times Square incident in 1979 just a month shy of my 18th birthday. Before that I was a victim of white gang violence and verbal abuse while growing in Queens, NY.   My oldest son was lynched in 2009 in Baltimore County, MD, allegedly by white racist. The local police did not investigate it. I found out that it has been going on for quite some time around the country, where usually a young Black male is found hanging and the so-called authorities considered it a suicide instead of investigating it properly.

The racial attacks with some if not most resulting in killings such as Trayvon Martin by George Zimmerman, and Jordan Davis also of Florida by Michael Dunn and countless of others who have been gunned down by racist cops, killed by racist gang violence or individuals, including a spate of lynchings, especially within the past 140 years. Racist attacks during the Columbian era, which is the past 500 years; also includes the slaughter of 50,000 Moors in Europe on November 1, 1570 (All Saints Day) and perhaps 100 million Africans during the middle passage alone over a 300 year period.   An estimate 10-14 million Africans died in the Congo colonized by Belgium during the reign of King Leopold II. Native Americans (some of which were Africans) had an estimate 14 million people before Columbus, invasion but number roughly around 1 million today.

Though our Ancestors had a notion of variations among mankind, it was based on mainly national origin. Today’s system has been developed during the 18th and 19th centuries. The notion of classifying mankind into different races was to justify the enslavement of Africans and the colonization of lands of dark people creating a truly false doctrine of white supremacy.   Therefore, this false doctrine of white supremacy CAN ONLY BE ENFORCED BY PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TERRORISM!

The whole notion of “race,” as it is today, is a relatively new one. With the advancement of modern science in the field of genetics, has proven the entire concept of race as FALSE!

The Origin of the Modern Racial Concept

It started with a book written by Swedish Botanist (Plant Scientist!), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), Systema Naturae, where he split humanity into four different groups by continental origin and skin color:

“Europæus albus” (white European), “Americanus rubescens” (red American), “Asiaticus fuscus” (brown Asian) and “Africanus niger” (black African).

Based on erroneous information Linnaeus arbitrarily assigned one of four characteristics that was based on the four “humors” classifying the Europaeus (Europeans) with the best qualities and the Afer (Africans) with the worst. (sources: Carl Linnaeus – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm; Race-wikipedia) the term “race’ was introduced, in 1749 by Georges Buffon, a French

naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopedic author.   His work was followed by Dr. Johan Blumenbach, a German naturalist, psychologist, and the first one of the three that actually was an anthropologist.   He split mankind into five races, Caucasian, Ethiopian (later Negroid), Mongolian (North Asian), Malayan (South Pacific), American (Native Americans).

Unfortunately for the millions of people who continue to be slaughtered in the name of white supremacy these men and those who followed them set the stage by opining that the “white race” was the most advance while the others were of less intelligence.

How Our Ancestors Thought About “Race”

In Ancient Khamit (Egypt) there is a famous painting of four men which represented four different distinct characteristics among the people in Egypt at the time. However it is was not based on “racial” but national differences. The color that the Egyptians portrayed themselves as was reddish-brown (which is the color of most African-Americans today.) They portrayed the Nubian (Nahasi) as black. The Asiatic (Namou) was portrayed as yellow while the Tamahu (also spelled, Tamhou) was portrayed as white. French Anthropologist Champollion complained that he was embarrassed that his people, the Tamahu were on the lowest strata of Egyptian society.   Champollion remarked:

“The variations I observed fully convinced me that they had tried to represent here the inhabitants of the four corners of the earth, according to the Egyptian system, namely: 1. the inhabitants of Egypt which, by itself, formed one part of the world…; 2. the inhabitants of Africa proper: Blacks; 3. Asians; 4. finally (and I am ashamed to say so, since our race is the last and the most savage in the series), Europeans who in those remote epochs, frankly did not cut too fine a figure in the world.”

Another anthropologist who came into Egypt during Napoleon’s occupation was Count Constantin de Volney. When he saw the faces on the monuments, temple paintings and statues, he exclaimed, “Just think that this race of black men, today our slave and  subjected to our scorn, is the very race to which we owe our arts, sciences, and even the use of speech!”

White supremacy historically, scientifically, genetically is absolutely false. Genetically human beings are originally Black .   I discovered this while reading my textbook in 7th grade hygiene class in Junior High School.

In the book it had two comparative lists. On top of the first list was “Dominant Gene traits” and on top of the second one was “Recessive Gene traits”

The traits listed under the Dominant gene were:

Dark hair, Corse thick hair, brown eyes, broad nose, dark skin.

The traits listed under the Recessive gene were:

Blond hair, Straight thin hair, blue eyes, thin nose, light skin.

I suddenly realized that the traits of the dominate gene was what we call a Black person and the traits of the Recessive gene is what we call a White person.   Genetically human beings are far more similar in comparison to other creatures such as cats and birds, for example. Individuals may been more intelligent that others but that does not make one group of people superior to another group of people due to the color of their skin.

In order for human beings to live in peace the whole notion of white supremacy in particular which has caused undue havoc on generations of human beings have to be totally eradicated.

This article was a complete re-write of an article with the same title, I wrote for the AS’SALAAM NEWS (Baltimore, MD) in 2000. Halim Mustafa Al-Kanemi, chief editor

I have known , that the original populations of global communities were dark-skinned people.  Adam who was the first human being, was created according to Al-Qur’an from “Black (Hama) mud.”   So when I began reading Tariq Berry’s book: THE UNKNOWN ARAB, I did not have to be convinced of the color of the original population of the Arabian Peninsula.  I have for decades read books from such authors/ historians as J.A. Rogers (WORLD’S GREAT MEN OF COLOR vol. 1&2, and other of his books) and Dr. Khalid A.T. Al-Mansour’s (who identifies himself as African-Arabian) various books which included similar topics.  However what did surprise me was the extent of the detailed traditions which the practically all of the people who today and for many centuries inhabit the region known as West Africa had concerning their history of migration from what we know as the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula.

There have been critics who would like to express the white supremacist view that Africa was a dark continent and it peoples remained in place.  This in contrast to the history of migrations which involved the entire African population over various periods of time.  With that view, is the erroneous placing the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent areas of Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Iran outside the African continental region both physically and culturally.   For example, in the case of the Ewe of the West Africa region which includes the modern nations of Ghana, Togo, and Benin,  they trace their roots to the Elamites, who  inhabited  the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers known to history as Mesopotamia in the modern day Iraq.  The Elamites who built large buildings and left wall paintings, depicted themselves with dark skin.  The Ewe express that they migrated from that area to Canaan (Palestine) then migrated with “the Jews” out of Palestine (during a severe drought) into Egypt ultimately making their way to the region they now inhabit.  The Asante (Ashanti) a closely related people through intimate  interactions with the Ewe, must have been the “the Jews” the Ewe recorded in their traditions.  The Ashanti who have been noted by credible Jewish scholars of  ” having traditions similar to Judaism” descend from a Palestinian town called “Ashan.”  The suffix “ti” means people therefore the word “Ashanti” means “the people of Ashan.”  It was from the Ewe who the Ashanti came to dominate that they got their famous kente cloth from.

The Kanembu also know as the Kanuri is the people I identify with.  I was aware that they claimed descendent from the Himyarite king, Sayf ibn Dhi Yazan from Yemen.  His descendants established a dynasty called the Sayfawa Dynasty that rule Kanem-Bornu Empire for over 1,000 years.   Groups that we African-Americans are descended from such as the Yoruba the Hausa, the Mandinka (Mandingo), the Ibo (Igbo), the Fulani, the Bambara (also a Mande people like the Mandinka) all have traditions of migrated from the east.

The book connected the dots to explain the migratory history of the African people and the connection to what we refer to as “Arab lands” from the time of the Pharoahs through the time of the spread of Al-Islam.  Some critics think that the Africans made these stories up to identify themselves with the Prophet Muhammad or one of their companions.  Those critics mistake the modern day Arab, who can be considered “white” in most societies today as the original Arabs. (The Arabs referred to them as, “Red”).  There is over whelming evidence that this is not the case.  The “Arabs” who left and settle in regions of Africa, particularly in the west retained their resemblance to their Eastern Ancestors.  This connect the fact that the Arabs who were Black may have migrated out of the region but do not disappear from the face of the earth.

The famous Muslim people called the Moors, who invaded and occupied Portugal and Spain (Andalusia) for nearly 800 years, were from the same groups of Africans previous mentioned.  The were not referred to as “Arabs” by the historians and their enemies because they were Muslim, but referred to such because of their dark skin which was typical of the Arab population.  It is important to mention the Moors because they are a vital link to the reason for the worst tragedy ever thrust on humanity— the TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE.

In “The Unknown Arabs, ” Tariq Berry pinpointed the reason why we have laminated over the injustice done through out our sojourn in this country, delineated in the death of Trayvon Maritn and others.  The question is, “Why do they hate us so much?”  My Christian brothers and sisters would be shock to learn that the entire slave trade of Africans into the so-called “New World” started as a Crusade of the European Christian revenge against the Muslim Moor!  It was the European hatred of the Moor, whose dark-skin exemplify the symbol of dominance of Al-Islam.  Once the Europeans conquered the Moors they started a system of forced conversion to Christianity of the Muslim and Jewish Moors, called the Inquisition.  It is no mistake (as mentioned in my book: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AL-ISLAM IN THE AFRICAN – AMERICAN COMMUNITY)  that the Klu Klux Klan bear the same uniforms of the people who carried out the Inquisition!  The hatred we are subjected to is not because we are Black so to speak but it is because we are Moors!  Those of us with some knowledge of our past have heard that the Pope at that time blessed the Slave trade but I did not know why until I read Bro. Tariq’s book.  Pope Nicholas V sent a papal bull dated, January 8, 1454 to the King of Portugal, Alphonso V authorizing him to “deprive the freedom of all Moors and other enemies of Christ with no exceptions for the Guineans.” (p. 86).  The Pope blessed all that participated in the “new crusade” (p. 87).  The first slaves brought to America were the Moorish captives from Spain and Portugal not Africa!  It is no mistake that it was the Portuguese and the Spanish who initiated the slave trade and the invasion of Africa.  As the Moors and Jews fled into Africa they were pursued then captured by the Europeans.   It was right that Noble Drew Ali, founder of the Moorish Science Temple (I’m not a member), identified the African-American with the Moors, and that he and the Honorable Elijah Muhammad bypassed Africa as the birth place of the Black man in America instead focusing on our “Asiatic” origins.


Bismillah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim (With the name of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful)

Those who believe and guarded (against evil): They shall have good news in this life and in the hereafter; there is no changing the words of Allah; that is a mighty achievement.  Yunus(10):63-64

New African Islamic Movement

To my knowledge, there is no organization by the name, “New African Islamic Movement.”   New Africa Islamic Movement represents a level of consciousness of Muslims of African Descent.  Consciousness is the natural state of being after one has been unconscious or in other words asleep.  When you get up from a night’s sleep you become aware or reacquainted with your surroundings.  You know exactly who you are and what is your purpose.  You begin to take responsible measures to carry out your agenda for the day.  Therefore you are involved with certain activities to fulfill that agenda that would enhance the well-being of you and your family, etc.  It is therefore, a movement of people of African Descent toward a day where we can be responsible for our own well-being without dependency on others who do not have our best interest in mind.

In the previous articles (part 1&2), I have expressed the concept of New Africa, as presented by Imam W.D. Mohammed and mention other movements, such as the Republic of New Afrika and the New Afrikan Panther Party.  Noting that the concept is not limited to Imam W.D. Mohammed.  However, Imam W.D. Mohammed brought the concept into the fold of Al-Islam.  Interestingly, it was his father, the Hon. Elijah Muhammad’s, call for land of our own in or outside the United States that influenced the Black Nationalist who were also disciples of El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X), after he left the NOI, formed the Repulic of New Afrika.  (The 19th century call by Edward Mc Cabe for Oklahoma to be set aside as a state for Blacks also was an influence)

The concept of New Africa can actually be traced to our Mother (Ummi) Continent itself.  The struggle for civil rights, Black Liberation, and Black Power in this country, coincided with the liberation struggles in Africa from colonial rule.  There in the Motherland was a desire to establish a New Africa free and independent from European rule, erasing the artificial borders set up by the Whites.  The Hon. Marcus Garvey was the major person Allah sent to wake up the Africans in Africa and in the Diaspora to establish independence.  He established a mindset that set the course for liberation of all African people.  All of those who led their particular country to independence were Garveyites (including Ho Chi Min of Vietnam).  Both El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X) and Dr, Martin Luther King acknowledged, that the struggle here in the US against the white power structure and the struggle in Africa against European colonial rule were connected.  As we began to be conscious again of our African heritage, we also yearn for a New Africa here in what is now known as the US.

Al-Islam and African Liberation

As pointed out in her excellent book: Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas, Dr. Syliane Diouf pointed out that Al-Islam was a unifying force both in Africa and in the Americas.  She points out that Islam broke down tribal barriers of members of different peoples who interacted and intermarried because of the practice of al-Islam:

“The study of the Islamic vocabulary of the Gullah language reveals that the      Muslims who introduced it were Wolof, Pulaar, Mandingo, Vai, and Hausa speakers.  Though they came from different countries, these Muslims all shared a religion, a language, a writing system, a set of values, and habits that transcended the traditional categories of identification and belonging, such as the ethnic group, the caste, or the region.”  (pg. 72)

In addition, the Islamic African-Arabian Historian and Scholar, Dr. Khalid A.T. Al- Mansour has said, “no Christians got off the slave ships.”  The Africans were either Muslims or adherents to traditional African religions.  Islamic Empires had covered practically all of West Africa, so even the non-Muslims knew of or was influenced by the Muslims.  We did not come here as Christians, Atheist, Communist or Socialist.  We for the most part came here as Muslims!  None of these other concepts, which are concepts given to us from our European slavemasters, can offer anything toward the true unity and liberation for us as a people.  It was Al-Islam that unified the African and caused the development of powerful empires through out the continent.  Some of which had advanced sciences and stood at the time of the European invasion.   The University of Sankore in Timbuktu, Mali was a chief learning center that not only attracted African Muslims but students all over the civilized world.  Timbuktu today, have several dozen family libraries which houses Islamic manuscripts centuries old.   Kanem-Bornu’s Sayfawa Dynasty ruled for a little over 1,000 years, until 1846.  Today though considered a ceremonial position, the Kanembu people (called Kanuri in Nigeria) continue to recognize the Sultan (in the Nigeria State of Bornu) as the head of state.  By the 1980’s, there was an armed conflict to reunite the Kanembu people, which in a sense, continues today.  Many Christian missionaries are frustrated because they can’t get the Kanembu to turn their back on Al-Islam and accept the Christian religion.  According to Dr. Ali Mazrui in his video documentary series called The Africans, he stated that where al-Islam was the strongest there were no European settlements.  Europeans settled in areas inhabited by non-Muslims.  Muslims were a thorn in the side of the European slavemaster on both sides of the Atlantic.  In his book: Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race, Dr. Edward W. Blyden (also known to the Muslim Africans as “Abdul Karim”) observed:

“Mohammedanism [Al-Islam], in Africa, has left the native master of himself and         of his home; but wherever Christianity has been able to establish itself, with the exception of Liberia, foreigners have taken possession of the country, and in some places, rule the natives with oppressive rigour.” (pg. 354)

Therefore Al-Islam is the only concept, methodology and way of life that can truly make the New African free from White rule and subjugation.  As a matter of fact, Al-Islam can free all of humanity from subjugation to the works of Shaytan ar-rajim (Satan the rejected).  It is the collective desire of the New African to have Freedom, Justice and Equality, not revenge, to live at peace with all members of the human family.  Only applying the principles of Al-Islam can the human soul have peace and harmony.

“Say: My Lord has commanded justice, and set upright your faces at every masjid and call on Him, being sincere in religion; as He brought you forth in the beginning, so shall you be returned.  Al-Araf(7):29


Bismillah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.   In The Name Of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful.

In the last article, I focused on the movement of Imam WD Mohammed.  The Imam had inherited the leadership of the Nation Of Islam from his father, Elijah Muhammad.  The Nation of Islam was essentially a Black Nationalist movement with Islamic terminology and Black mythology in its core beliefs.  It differed from the mainstream or orthodox Islam.  The Imam while a member of his father’s group spoke out against his father’s teachings, such as Allah being a man, the whiteman was the devil and that Elijah Muhammad was the messenger of Allah in addition to or instead of Muhammad ibn Abdullah (sas).  These beliefs clashed with mainstream Islam.  He spoke out at the risk of his own life.  Several times he was expelled by his father from the group.  By the 1974, Elijah Muhammad seemed to change.  He stopped emphasizing that “the whiteman was the devil”  and was more concerned about the “Islam” of the group.  At the annual gathering of members on Fard Muhammad’s (the group’s founder) birthday  on Feb. 26th of that year, he invited non-Black Muslims and told the audience: “they want to know about your (adherence to) Islam…”  I’m not sure whether it was part of this or any Savior’s Day speech or it was given at another time but a speech was made to his followers where his told them to obey his son.  The members was well aware that his son then Wallace D. Muhammad did not follow his father’s teachings.   When he assumed the leadership of the NOI he next year (his father died the day before Savior’s Day 1975) the “Nation” was primed for change.  Not everyone was on board however.   His brother-in-law, Silas Muhammad, did not accept his leadership.  He started his own Nation Of Islam group. First they were headquartered in Los Angeles, CA then they moved to Atlanta, GA where they are still based.  There were also at two other smaller factions.  One was lead  by (an uncle, Elijah’s brother)John Muhammad in Detroit, MI and another NOI brother started a faction in Brooklyn, NY.   After initially accepting Imam WD Mohammed’s leadership, by late 1977,  Minister Louis Farrakhan broke away and started his faction which was much larger  and more popular then the previous factions of the Nation of Islam.   The faction led by Farrakhan and the main group led by the Imam had tensions between them.  It split friends and families and there was violent clashes.   By 1983, the two leaders met and a truce was announced.  At that time I was a member of Farrakhan’s NOI since 1982.  For a some years since becoming Muslim, a popular question that was asked to me was, “Are you with Farrakhan or Wallace?”  The journey that took me into Islam, insha’Allah (God-willing) will be discussed in a later post.

Imam WD Mohammed nevertheless rose to be THE Imam in America and was, I believe at the time of his death, the President of the World Conference on Religion and Peace.  The Imam did hold on to the “do for self” concept meaning that we should own our own schools, businesses and masjids.  There were many businesses, schools and masjids that has flourished under Imam WD Mohammed.   New Africa embraces the “do for self” concept and takes it to another level.  Te level as a vision for a new land of opportunity led by the “resurrected” descendants of American slaves.

His successor organization to the NOI, then called the American Muslim Mission(AMM) inherited 4,600 acres of land in south Georgia bought under his father’s leadership and named it “Elijahville”.   Elijahville failed but in the “spirit of Elijahville”, New Madinah, was estabished on 64 acres of land in Sumrall, MS in 1987.  New Madinah is still growing today and host an annual Islamic Retreat since its establishment.

Other New Africa Concepts and Movements

Republic Of New Africa (Afrika)

  In 1968, a group of Black Nationalist, disciplines of Malcolm X’s teachings held a meeting in Detroit, MI.  Influenced by the Nation Of Islam’s call for the US government to give African Americans land either here or abroad to establish an independent Black Nation, founded the Republic of New Africa.  The Republic of  New Africa (RNA) focused on five southern states which had a more significant African-American population than any region in the country.  The states were: South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana.  The capital was established on a farm in Jackson, Mississippi, the following year.  On August 18, 1971 the RNA was attacked by FBI and local law enforcement.   Eleven members were arrested and imprisoned including its Provisional President, Imari Obadele, who wasn’t released from prison until the latter ’80’s. Today the movement still exist.  It much diminished.  The movement with new leadership is called Republic of New Afrika (spelling Africa with a “k” instead of a “c”.  This has become popular practice since the height of the Afrocentic movement in the early ’90’s.

New Afrikan Black Panther Party

This is an off shoot of the New Black Panther Party.  The New Black Panther Party was led by the  Khalid Abdul Muhammad, a former longtime minister in the Nation Of Islam.  He was Minister Louis Farrakhan’s National Spokesman until Farrakhan was forced to excommunicate him in 1993, due to remarks he made against Jews at Kean College in New Jersey speech. He was also, at that time minster of Mosque No. 7.  Khalid died of a brain hemorrhage February 17, 2001 while chairman of the New Black Panther Party, a position he held after being kicked out of the Nation.  The New Afrikan Black Panther Party, a splinter group led by a Shaka Zulu is a Marxist Organization aligned in a United Panther alliance with other Panther groups which represents whites and latinos.


In The Name Of Allah,  The Beneficent, The Merciful

“O, mankind, indeed, We have created you from a male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another.  Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you.  Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted”. Al-Hujurat(49):13

As salaamu alaikum (Peace be on you).  I use the pen name “Mustafa Al-Kanemi”.  It was the study of my African heritage, in my early teens, that began the journey into Al-Islam.  As I progressed in my study of African History I grew a deep affinity with the history of Kanem-Bornu.   I identified it as my own history and the Kanembu as my ancestoral people.  I attribute it to “genetic memory”.  By 1999, when I began writing articles for a Baltimore Islamic Newsletter/ Magazine called, “As’Salaam News”, I added Al-Kanemi to my last name and thus my pen name.

The Kanembu House is a dream of mine to include a library and research center (eventually something along the lines of the Schomberg Center in Harlem, N.Y) which would, at first, include the personal library I possess. It will be open to all.  It will be, insha’Allah, based on a New African (African-American) Islamic theme.

New Africa

  In the mid-’90’s, Imam W.D. Mohammed came up with the concept of an Islamic community called “New Africa”.  The Imam was the son of Nation of Islam leader, Elijah Muhammad.  He assumed leadership of the movement upon his father’s death in 1975.  (This coincided with the beginning of my studies into my heritage)  He changed the Black Nationalist focused Nation Of Islam (NOI) into the World Community of Al-Islam in the West (WCIW) a mainstream Islamic organization.   He called the members “Bilalians” after Bilal ibn (son of) Rabah, the first mu’adhadhan (caller to prayer) of Al-Islam who was Ethiopian (Habashi).  Some scholars immediately took offense to that arguing that if it was erroneous for us as Muslims to be reffered to as “Mohammadans”, (as Christians were named for Christ and Buddhist for Buddha, implying worship) then it would be equally erroneous to name a people after Bilal.   By 1980 the “Bilalian” was discarded.  The weekly newspaper, the old “Muhammad Speaks” renamed the “Bilalian News” became the “A.M. Muslim Journal” (then later, “Muslim Journal”), to reflect the organization’s new name “American Muslim Mission” (AMM).   In 1985, Imam W.D. Mohammed resigned from the leadership and disbanded the AMM, telling his people to join the greater Muslim Community.  He established WDM Ministries.   The movement went through a few name changes before settling on “Muslim American Society” in the latter ’90s.  The Imam actually remained the head of the movemnent while still maintaining his ministry as a separate organization.  The ministry was later renamed “The Mosque Cares” and it remain that way until the Imam’s death in 2008.  About a year or so before his death, the Imam again resigned as the leader of the movement by this time the movement was called, “American Muslim Society” (AMS).  This was because an immigrant founded group out of Falls Church, VA started using the name “Muslim American Society”.  The two MAS groups caused confusion.   The Imam decided to change the name of his organization to end the confusion.  The Imams of the majority of the masajid (mosques) in the movement began to also resign from the MAS and pledged their support to “The Mosque Cares” thus ending the AMS.  Today, the movement is called “Associates of Imam W.D. Mohammed”.   “The Mosque Cares” is now headed by his son, Wallace Muhammad II.

  Some of the organizations within the “Association” took on the “New Africa” name.  New Africa Radio is the official online radio of the movement.  Masjids and Islamic Centers such as D.C.’s New Africa Islamic Community Center,  Philadelphia’s New Africa Center, Muslim American Museum & Archive, and New Africa Islamic Community in Austin, TX are at least some examples.

  New Africa concept was identical to the concept I had for Kanem-Bornu.  I actually added “Kanem- Bornu Islamic Community” to the name of the now-defunct “Masjid-ur Rahman” (’91-’93) I founded in Mobile, Al., while an Imam in Imam Jamil Al-Amin’s (former H. Rap Brown) “National Community” now known as “Al-Ummah”.  The “New Africa” concept was instrumental in attracting me to the Imam W.D. Mohammed (he changed the spelling of his name from Muhammad, I believe, because that is the way it was on his birth certificate) movement.   As Allah says in the above ayat (vesrse) of Qur’an, that He created us different peoples and tribes, there is nothing wrong in Islam to identify yourself with your peoples heritage and culture as long as you do not say you are superior to anyone else because of it.  As a Muslim African-American or New African Muslim, I understand that Al-Islam is interwined with my own African heritage.  A heritage that also shared by some the indigineous people of  the Americas.  We are a part of the “Ummah” (the global Muslim Community).